Butter has been present on our food tables practically since forever. It is an edible fat of natural origin, which is made from the cream of cow's milk. It mostly consists of saturated fatty acids and vitamins. Real butter is usually creamy or light yellow in color and can be made at home. What are the nutritional values ​​of butter? Who can eat butter and who should avoid it?

Butter - composition

The composition of butter is approx. 80-90 percent. milk fat. This product contains approx. 56 percent. saturated fatty acids , therefore it should not be consumed indefinitely. Butter available on the market usually consists of 82 percent. fat, approx. 16 percent. water and approx. 2 percent. non-fat solids. As much as 50 grams of fat are saturated fats, i.e. lauric fat, myristic fat, palmitic fat and stearic fat.

There are unsaturated fats in butter which turn into trans fats that are dangerous to your health. Therefore, butter is associated with negative effects on the body. However, it is worth remembering that these fats occur naturally and their action is not as harmful as in the case of trans isomers formed during the hardening of vegetable fats. Real butter consumed in small amounts is recommended.

Butter producers also use additional substances for its production, such as: phosphates, phosphate acid, diphosphates, triphosphates and polyphosphates. The most common substance added to butter are carotenes , thanks to which the product acquires a specific light yellow color.

Butter - types

Depending on the needs and taste preferences, we can find different types of butter on store shelves . The first and most popular of them is extra butter , made of pasteurized and sour cream. Usually it contains about 82 percent. fat and 0.6 percent. lactose (the low content of this substance is caused by the natural acidification of the cream).

The second and most popular butter on the market is cream butter . It is made of non-sour cream and contains up to 60 percent. fat. This type of butter contains about 2-3 percent. lactose. The third available product is salted butter with a fat content of around 80%. and salt - about 0.2-0.3 percent. There is also a solution for people who are lactose intolerant. For their needs, butter with a trace content of lactose was created - per 100 grams of the product is less than 0.01 grams.

There are also other butter-like products which, in the light of the regulations and due to their low milk fat content, cannot be called butter. These include: garlic butter (75% fat, salt, garlic) and herbal butter (75% fat, herbs, salt, pepper ). The last type of butter that we use very often in the kitchen is clarified butter . Unfortunately, "butter" is only in name, because it is actually butter oil.

The clarified butter consists of practically only fat and a small amount of water. This product has a long shelf life (unlike classic butter), contains trace amounts of sugar and has a slightly nutty flavor. Perfect for baking and frying.

Butter - nutritional properties

Butter is characterized by a very high caloric value, because 100 grams of the product contain as much as 740 calories. Nevertheless, it contains a lot of nutrients due to short-chain fatty acids. These acids nourish the cells of the intestinal epithelium and are the main source of energy. In addition, they have antibacterial and antifungal properties. There are about 8 grams of short-chain fatty acids in 100 grams of butter.

When analyzing the nutritional value of butter , it is imperative to mention linoleic acid , also known as CLA for short. Despite the fact that it is present in the form of trans fat, it has health-promoting properties, including anti-cancer. CLA can be consumed not only in the form of butter, but also supplements that in synthetic form support: slimming , increasing muscle mass and reducing adipose tissue by inhibiting the enzyme that allows fat to penetrate the adipocytes.

Can butter contain vitamins? Definitely yes! This product is a source of important fat-soluble vitamins. As one of the few products, it can provide the body with vitamin D - in the amount of 1.768 mg per 100 grams. The main function of vitamin D is to support bone formation. In children, vitamin D affects the development of the skeleton and protects against rickets, while in adults it prevents osteoporosis .

Butter is also a good source of Vitamin A , which helps metabolize proteins and steroid hormones. In addition, it supports the functioning of the mucous membranes and skin and accelerates cell regeneration. Vitamin A together with rhodopsin is responsible for normal eyesight.

Products containing animal fats, including butter, are also a source of vitamin K , which is responsible for blood clotting , inhibits the growth of cancer and has an impact on the calcium metabolism in the body. Vitamin K is included in the group of vitamins that do not dissolve in water but in fats, therefore the consumption of butter facilitates the process of its absorption.

Butter, which consists mostly of milk fat, also contains phospholipids, the most important of which are sphingomyelin and lecithin . These compounds have a beneficial effect on concentration, memory and regeneration of the body during intense physical exertion. The content of phospholipids in milk fat ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 percent. Butter also contains trace amounts of carbohydrates (lactose, 07 g per 100 grams) and proteins (0.7 g per 100 grams).

Is butter healthy?

Considering the fact that butter is almost entirely composed of saturated fatty acids, this may suggest a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. Nothing could be more wrong! Consuming up to 14 grams of butter daily does not increase the incidence of heart disease, including heart attacks and congestion.

Eating butter as an additive to dishes or sandwiches is not associated with overall population mortality, on the contrary, it may slightly reduce the risk of dying from diabetes .

Who should eat butter?

Butter should be one of the elements of the diet in children under 3 years of age, in the elderly and the elderly. Why? Because in this group, the secretion of digestive juices and the presence of digestive enzymes is low. Butter is a product recommended for people struggling with malabsorption and malnutrition.

Butter should be a permanent part of the diet of people with a deficiency of vitamins A, D and E, which have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system and have antioxidant properties.

Who should give up butter?

High cholesterol in butter indicates that people struggling with high cholesterol, atherosclerotic lesions and an abnormal lipid profile should give it up . Such people should theoretically give up butter completely or replace it with high-quality margarine, because it contains only 60 percent. fat, and even better olive oil. The amount of cholesterol in butter is approximately 220-240 g per 100 grams.

However, butter is not the biggest source of cholesterol , we absorb larger amounts of this substance by eating eggs or offal, for example. In practice, the risk of consuming too much cholesterol with butter is unlikely. For example - the weight of one egg is equal to half a cube of butter. It is hardly possible to eat this amount of butter at once. Therefore, it is worth using common sense in the diet when composing the menu.

Should butter be present in a child's diet?

The diet of the youngest should be rich in fats, because they influence, among others, for proper development. However, adults should pay attention to the quality of the fats they give them to children. According to nutritionists, it is advisable to eat meals or products that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids. We find them especially in fatty sea fish and vegetable oils. In children under 3 years of age, the fat used for spreading should be butter. Why?

The aforementioned cholesterol contained in this product is essential at this stage of a child's development as it supports the building of new cells. When choosing butter, it is worth checking its composition, preferably if it contains about 82 percent. animal fat, no added vegetable fats . In addition, butter provides fat-soluble vitamins - short-chain saturated fatty acids should be limited by adults, while in the diet of the youngest they are most appropriate. At this stage of development, children need them to build the structures of the nervous system .

How to store butter?

Butter that is stored improperly or not used for too long usually becomes rancid. Then it is no longer fit for consumption. How to prevent this process? If you have purchased a large block of butter, it is worth dividing it into pieces or freezing it. The best idea is to refrigerate the butter or preserve it with table salt. One of the ways to extend the life of butter is to close access to air, i.e. immersion in water.

How to make your own butter?

If we have some time and willingness, we can prepare the butter ourselves. To prepare homemade butter, we will need approx. 400 ml of heavy cream. Country sweet cream will be the best in this case. If we fail to buy it, we can use the equivalents available in the store. 30% cream is suitable for making butter. and 36 percent The fatter the cream, the more butter we get from it.

The cream should be at room temperature, this will make it easier to churn the butter. It is best to take it out of the refrigerator half an hour before preparing it. To "produce" butter, we will also need 2-3 pinches of salt, a mixer or blender, a tall dish, a strainer and gauze. If we have all the necessary products, we can start working. Pour the cream into a tall vessel and start whipping at medium speed, then add salt.

The next step will be to blend at high speed until the fat separates from the watery buttermilk. Then pour the contents of the vessel onto a strainer previously lined with gauze and squeeze the butter. Then, pour about half a liter of cold water into the second vessel, add a lump of butter and knead it to precipitate the buttermilk. The final step will be to put the butter in a bowl and then into the fridge. Self-made butter should be consumed within 4-5 days.

The content on our website is intended to improve, not replace, the contact between the Website User and their doctor. The website is intended solely for informational and educational purposes. Before following the specialist knowledge, in particular medical advice, contained on our Website, you must consult a doctor. The Administrator does not bear any consequences resulting from the use of information contained on the Website.

Dry skin is rough to the touch, dull, produces less sebum and gives an uncomfortable feeling of tightness. Therefore, it requires properly selected care. This is especially important during a pandemic, when the epidermis is in daily contact with disinfectants, including biocides. How to properly care for dry skin?

What is dry skin?

People with dry skin are often itchy, tight and red. This type of epidermis is highly sensitive to external factors, including mechanical damage, solar radiation or some cosmetic ingredients. Too little sebum and disturbances in the structure of the lipid layer make dry skin less able to bind and retain water in the epidermis. All this means that wrinkles appear faster and all minor wounds heal longer. It is also much thinner, which makes the blood vessels visible.about:blank

Dry skin is extremely prone to dryness. Factors that have a negative impact on the condition of its hydration include:

  1. hormonal disorders,
  2. improperly selected care, including cosmetics that disrupt the pH of the skin, with a drying effect,
  3. washing the skin too often,
  4. chronic stress,
  5. unhealthy lifestyle, including smoking
  6. hard water,
  7. dried air (especially during the heating season),
  8. some chronic diseases, including diabetes or atopic dermatitis,
  9. taking certain medications, e.g. from the group of diuretics,
  10. frequent disinfection of the epidermis with biocides.

The key rule in the care of dry skin is the selection of appropriate cosmetics that will ensure the correct level of hydration and will allow you to forget about the feeling of tightening and peeling of the epidermis. Dermocosmetics brand Cerko meet the needs of the dried skin and can be used every day.

Five steps in the care of dry skin

Gentle cleansing of the skin

One of the most common mistakes in the care of dry skin is daily cleansing with cosmetics of too "aggressive" composition, which may cause irritation and deepen drying. We are talking here primarily about fragrances and irritants, which are a common cause of skin allergies. Many people still use traditional soaps that disrupt the lipid layer of the epidermis and cause redness. Cerkopil hypoallergenic face wash gel is safe for everyday use, it gently and effectively cleanses the skin. In addition, it moisturizes it and soothes irritations. This emollient dermocosmetic contains an innovative amino acid surfactant with a low irritating potential. For this reason, it can be used by people with sensitive and atopic skin, as well as with low tolerance to standard cosmetics.about:blank

It is worth supplementing the care of dry skin with the hypoallergenic Cerkopil body wash gel, which provides an appropriate protective barrier even when the epidermis is too dry. Its innovative composition soothes irritations and replenishes the level of hydration.

Proper drying of the skin

The method of drying the skin of the body and face immediately after washing is also important in everyday care. It is recommended to use towels made of delicate materials, mainly cotton. It is important not to rub the epidermis, which can cause irritation and redness. Excess water should be drained from the skin by applying a towel to it.

Proper skin washing temperature

Too high a bath or shower temperature has a negative effect on dry skin. It weakens the hydrolipid layer, making the dermis quickly lose its physiological hydration and is more prone to damage and drying.

Regular hydration and lubrication of the epidermis

People with dry skin should take special care of systematic hydration. Both in the morning and in the evening, after a gentle cleansing of the skin, apply a properly selected dermocosmetic, e.g. emollient for daily skin care, Cerkobaza. The ingredients of the preparation grease, moisturize and reduce the discomfort associated with drying. Cercobase strengthens the natural protective layer of the epidermis, reduces roughness, smoothes and tones the skin, making it look supple and radiant. It can be used by people prone to allergies, atopy , with a reduced degree of hydration, and supplementary in local steroid therapy, as well as in the course of psoriasis and some metabolic diseases.about:blank

Moisturizing the skin "from the inside"

To supplement the care of dry skin, it is necessary to systematically replenish fluids "from the inside". For this purpose, it is recommended to drink about 2 liters of non-carbonated mineral water daily. This will allow you to rebuild the hydrolipid barrier and enhance the action of dermo-cosmetics.

Knowing the basic rules of care for dry, dehydrated and irritable skin, you can take care of its proper hydration at home. This allows you to forget about the feeling of tightening, peeling of the epidermis and faster formation of wrinkles.

Hair, like skin, requires properly selected care. Depending on whether they're dry, oily, or normal, they'll need a different treatment. Learn how to moisturize and nourish dry hair and what care options to choose.

Dry hair - how to recognize?

Dry hair is not the same as damaged hair, but if neglected, it may break and fall out, and dandruff may appear on the scalp . What is dry hair characterized by ? A person with dry hair has a problem with their arrangement, so-called hay returns shortly after washing. Such hair is often frizzy and static, rough to the touch, devoid of shine, and the ends tend to split. Dryness occurs due to the raised cuticle, through which water is lost too quickly. Therefore, with this type of hair, it is necessary to moisturize it regularly and avoid drying it out.

Causes of dry hair

There may be various reasons for losing water from your hair. Apart from environmental factors, improper care and diet, individual tendencies to dryness may be responsible for this. Often people with dry complexion also have a problem with dry hair . Other causes of dehydrated hair include:

  1. high temperature treatments - hair subjected to various styling (curling, straightening, warm air drying) lose large amounts of water,
  2. washing your head too often,
  3. poorly selected hair care products,
  4. frequent bleaching and coloring of hair,
  5. a diet low in omega-3 acids, vitamins A and E and fatty acids,
  6. environmental factors - dry air, air conditioning, strong sun.

Hair care - how to moisturize dry hair?

Dull and dry hair requires carefully selected cosmetics and care. Trim the ends regularly to keep your hair in good condition. Reduce styling your hair significantly with heat. Avoid the use of a dryer, and if necessary you must use it, always use a cold air flow. After bathing, do not rub your hair with a towel, do not tie the hair with a rubber band, it prevents the flow of substances inside the hair.

Dry hair - shampoo

Often, when dealing with hair problems, the saying is true - darkest under a lantern. How to moisturize your hair? When looking for the cause of dry hair, we forget about shampoo. A properly selected shampoo is the basis of care that will help keep water in your hair. Dry hair should be washed with moisturizing shampoos, for thin and dry hair. They are more delicate, do not dry out and do not disturb the protective layer of the scalp. Their composition is often enriched with oils that additionally nourish and strengthen dry hair .

Dry hair - conditioner

Dry hair quickly loses water and moisture. Their condition may also be the result of improper cosmetic and hairdressing treatments, which is why conditioners turn out to be irreplaceable. They regenerate and strengthen thin and dull hair. After regular use of conditioners for dry hair, you can see significant effects. Not only the appearance of well-arranged and shiny hair is improved, but also its condition. It is best for dry hair , when the conditioner contains vitamin E which delays skin aging and cosmetic kerosene.

Dry hair - oil

Oil is another important element of everyday care for dry , fine and dull hair . The oil helps hair regain elasticity, makes the hair shiny again and better styling. On dry hair to check the argan oil , oil with cumin and almond oil. However, the sustained improvement can be seen with regular use of oils. How to moisturize your hair with oil? It can be applied to both dry and wet hair right after bathing.

Home remedies for dry hair

In addition to cosmetics and care products for dry hair, home remedies are also useful . If you struggle with the problem of dry, dull and brittle hair, start looking for a solution in the kitchen. Some of the products present in every home can, as a natural care product, improve the appearance and condition of the hair:

  1. omega-3 fatty acids - are present mainly in fish, linseed and nuts. Including these products in your diet will improve the health of your hair and give it a shiny appearance;
  2. vitamin A - found mainly in carrots, cod liver oil, green leafy vegetables (spinach, savoy cabbage) and some fruits (mango, papaya);
  3. vinegar - a homemade preparation for dry hair can be prepared by mixing vinegar with water in a ratio of 1 to 2. You can wash your hair with the preparation. Vinegar nourishes the hair cuticle and cleans it;
  4. olive oil - you can rub a small amount of it not in your hair, but in your scalp. It is best to leave it for a longer time, e.g. overnight, and rinse in the morning with shampoo;
  5. banana and avocado - you can prepare a natural hair mask from the ground and mixed banana and avocado. Spread it through your hair and leave it on for about an hour, then rinse with warm water.

People who have dry skin are well aware of the fact that it requires special care, especially in the fall and winter season. Dry, warm air in the apartments and frost outside the window are not conducive to the good condition of the epidermis. So how to care for the skin's hydro-lipid layer, its in-depth hydration and a healthy appearance? The key to success is the selection of appropriate dermocosmetics and following a few rules of proper care.

What is dry skin?

Dry skin causes discomfort for many people. Such epidermis is extremely sensitive to irritation, it tends to be red and often peels off. In addition, it is clearly tense, dull and the blood vessels underneath are visible. Due to too little sebum, dry skin ages much faster and mimic wrinkles appear earlier.

What causes dry skin? Among the factors responsible for it are:

Dry skin - different faces in chronic diseases

Depending on the state of health, human skin can have different faces. This is often a signal of many chronic diseases. Diseases that may manifest as dry skin in their course include:

Dry skin doesn't like it

In the daily care of dry skin, the most important thing is ... delicacy. Therefore, do not rub it with a towel, and after washing it, it is better to gently drain the excess water from it by applying a clean cotton towel. A common mistake is to wash dry skin with ordinary soap. It disturbs the natural pH of the skin and violates its hydro-lipid layer. It's also better to avoid chlorinated water. In the case of sensitive and dry skin, the use of peelings that mechanically exfoliate dead skin should be limited to a minimum. Such a cosmetic is more conducive to the care of combination and oily skin.

How to moisturize dry skin?

Sensitive and dry skin can be moisturized both inside and out. Every day you must not forget about a balanced diet rich in a complex of the most important vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids and fiber. It is equally important to drink a minimum of 2 liters of mineral water a day.

It is wise to do a food intolerance test, as some of the foods you eat may cause a sudden onset of skin changes, for example in the form of a pear-shaped rash or red spots. Allergy tests help eliminate such products from the diet.about:blank

The precise selection of cosmetics allows to significantly minimize the symptoms of dry skin, including sensitive skin, prone to atopy, itching and psoriasis. When shopping, it's important to be guided primarily by their composition. A good solution is to use emollients that retain water in the epidermis, creating a protective barrier on its surface. It is also important to use preparations free of fragrances, irritants, parabens and preservatives. A properly selected dermocosmetic for dry, sensitive and atopic skin should combine care properties with anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and antibacterial properties.

A valuable ingredient is, for example, I-modulia ®, which is found in the products of the XeraCalm AD rangethe French brand Avène. It is a biotechnologically active substance isolated from the springs of the famous Avène thermal water. I-modulia ® stimulates the skin's innate immunity and does not affect the natural microbiome. What's more, the composition of XeraCalm AD includes cerium-omega, which is a complex of ceramides that moisturize and rebuild the skin's barrier function. Thermal water used in production soothes and soothes irritations. XeraCalm AD can be successfully used both in children (including infants) and adults. The effectiveness and safety of the dermocosmetic formula has been confirmed by clinical trials in a group of over 7,000 people with dry and very dry skin with a tendency to atopy and itching. After just five days of use, you can feel an increase in the comfort of dry skin and a lower frequency of itching.

A radiant complexion is an asset for every woman. It can become your part if you introduce proper care habits and use appropriate cosmetics. How to take care of your skin on a daily basis? How to cleanse and moisturize it? What ingredients to look for in creams. 

What are the basic principles of skin care?

The first step is to identify and know your skin type. If we already know what type of skin we have and what features our skin has, it is easier for us to choose the right care. The second stage is proper washing and cleansing, which prepares the skin to absorb active ingredients contained in cosmetics. The third important principle of care is the use of an appropriate cream matched to the needs and type of skin - both in terms of its consistency and effect.

How to safely cleanse the skin?

Cleansing the skin should never irritate it or cause discomfort. If this happens, it means that the cosmetic used is not suitable for us. Skin cleansing should be done twice a day, morning and evening. It is best to use delicate preparations for this purpose - washing gel or foam, such as Cetaphil gentle cleansing gel or PRO OIL Control foam. Then dry the skin and apply the appropriate cream.

In the evening, I recommend a two-step cleansing. The first step is to remove impurities with a micellar emulsion. Moisten the skin with water, apply the EM micellar emulsion and massage the skin of the face with circular movements for 1-2 minutes. In the second stage, wash the skin with gel or foam, also for 1-2 minutes, rinse with lukewarm water. At the end, dry the face with a towel by gently pressing it - do not rub!

What role does moisturizing play in daily care?

Properly moisturized skin looks fresh and healthy. Lack of proper hydration affects the appearance of dryness, redness, and hyperkeratosis. It causes peeling of the skin and premature aging. Properly selected care ensures skin comfort.

Which ingredients have the best moisturizing effect?

Creams moisturize the skin surface and protect against water loss from the epidermis. The moisturizing of the skin is supported by ingredients such as lipids, vitamins, hyaluronic acid, and vegetable oils. The water-lipid coat of the skin is also rebuilt by vitamin E, glycerin and panthenol.

What to consider when choosing moisturizing creams and lotions?

First of all, we must know the type of our skin and choose the consistencies and compositions of cosmetics that are appropriate for us. Oily and combination skin like light texture (Cetaphil Moisturizing Day Cream, MD Lotion). Dry and normal skin usually react better to richer textures of creams (Cetaphil DA intensively moisturizing cream). If we have sensitive skin, we check whether the product is dermatologically tested.

Why should cleansing and moisturizing be the basis of care?

Regularly moisturized and cleansed skin will stay in good condition for a long time. Cleansing is not only washing the skin, but also preparing it properly to absorb the active ingredients contained in the cream. Without it, we cannot expect the cosmetic to be effective. Skin cleansing should be performed with preparations that do not irritate the skin, do not tighten it, wash it thoroughly and unblock pores (Cetaphil EM Micellar washing emulsion). Only well-cleansed and non-irritated skin is able to react properly to moisturizing care.

Do the rules of moisturizing and cleansing change depending on the age and type of skin?

Oily, combination and acne skin require specialist care, therefore gels and foams are the best for cleansing. The consistency of creams should have light formulas, moisturize and accelerate skin regeneration (Cetaphil Pro Oil Control moisturizing and matting cream). Normal, dry and mature skin prefer denser and rich cream formulas. It is important that they cover the skin and replenish its damaged water-lipid coat.

The skin of mature women is more demanding because, due to hormonal changes related to menopause, it becomes thin, dry and sensitive. This is due to the decreasing activity of the sebaceous glands. When we enter menopause, we must remember that the skin will require more care, hydration, soothing and regeneration.

How to take care of sensitive and demanding skin?

The care steps for all skin types remain the same - we wash and moisturize it twice a day. In the case of dry and sensitive skin, we can perform an additional ritual during the day to help moisturize. Such complexion is very capricious and delicate, often reacts badly to cosmetics saturated with active ingredients and fragrances. I usually recommend dermocosmetics dedicated to sensitive skin (eg Cetaphil PS lipoactive moisturizing cream, DA Ultra intensively moisturizing cream, MD dermoprotector body lotion).

Influenza is, in the minds of many Poles, a light disease that is no different from a common cold. Nothing could be more wrong. Its course can be very severe and complications are serious. The World Health Organization estimates that up to half a million patients die of flu every year.

Flu is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. Nevertheless, it is often mistaken for a cold, which gives us a false sense of security. And while we can get vaccinated against the flu, we rarely do it. In general, the vaccination coverage remains at the level of approx. 4%. in the entire population, in children at the level of 1%, and in people over 65 - 14%. The myths surrounding influenza vaccination circulate in society to some extent. They are extremely harmful. So let's deal with a few of the most popular.

MYTH: Flu vaccination can cause this disease

There is probably no person who would not hear that someone got vaccinated against the flu and fell ill with it. In fact, however, it is unlikely. It must be remembered that the vaccine protects only against the flu virus, which can not only significantly weaken the body, but also cause many dangerous complications. However, it does not protect against parainfluenza viruses or pathogens responsible for the appearance of cold symptoms. These, although they may force us to rest in bed for a few days, are not as dangerous and dangerous as the flu virus.

There are two types of vaccines available: inactivated, injected and live, intranasal (attenuated - containing weakened viruses). Therefore, administration of either vaccine cannot cause disease. Vaccination does not guarantee that we will not get sick, but - most importantly - it protects us and our children against more serious complications, e.g. pneumonia, meningitis, myocarditis, sepsis or exacerbation of a chronic disease.

TRUE: The flu virus mutates and vaccination has to be repeated every year

The flu virus has the trait that it mutates rapidly. The pathogen that caused the disease last year may have a completely different structure. Therefore, it is necessary to change the composition of the vaccine according to the recommendations issued by the World Health Organization. Due to the antigenic variability of the influenza virus, we do not acquire full immunity after the disease. This means you can get the flu several times.

MYTH: During the coronavirus pandemic, it's better not to get vaccinated

As the world struggles with the coronavirus pandemic, many people fear vaccination. Doctors and scientists reassure: vaccination is safe and absolutely advisable. There are several reasons. Firstly, the vaccination coverage level is very low, which means that there is no question of herd immunity. And only in this way could we protect the weakest, e.g. seniors, who are particularly at risk of both post-flu complications and the severe course of COVID-19. Second, the healthcare system is overburdened in a pandemic. We already have a problem with getting to the GP. In the fall, when the infection season begins, it will be even worse.

Flu pandemics around the world

MYTH: The flu vaccine should be given in the summer. In the infection season, it doesn't make sense anymore

The highest number of cases of flu is recorded from January to March. Many patients are also diagnosed in the fall. So it doesn't matter when we get the vaccine. It provides protection, usually two weeks after administration.

MYTH: It's better to get the flu than to get vaccinated

Flu cannot be cured with vitamin C. Let us emphasize once again - it is not a common cold, but a serious disease that takes its toll every year. We don't know how our body will react to the virus. We can go through the disease asymptomatically, but we will still infect others, e.g. our parents and grandparents, who may develop a full-blown disease and complications that are dangerous to health.

Every day we make mistakes that have an impact on our health. We are aware of most of them and try to avoid them. For example, we take care of physical activity, diet, and avoid stimulants like coffee in order to not endanger ourselves unnecessarily. However, there are some that we commit automatically without realizing it.

How many of them have you done in the last hour?

1. Did you touch your face?

The danger of touching the forehead, cheeks, and mouth is often overlooked. However, in this case, these things can transmit a virus to the mouth and cause a cold sore. You may think a toilet door is the dirtiest thing in the office, but a computer keyboard, an office door handle, or a bus handle can be just as bad. When we get these things stuck in our hair, we tend to transfer them to the face and even rub them into the skin. When people are sick, they usually get worse than when they would be healthy. They also increase the risk of developing rashes, pimples, or acne on the face.

2. You haven't moved from your chair?

A sedentary lifestyle in our time is already the norm. We spend hours at a time sitting in front of a desk, often remaining motionless for long periods of time. This is reflected in our health - the risk of being overweight, problems with circulation or joints are just some of the effects of constant sitting. Even if we exercise systematically, we are not able to eliminate the effects of lack of exercise for most of the day. It's a good idea to get up from behind your desk every 30-60 minutes, even to stretch your limbs or stretch. We will achieve even better results if we go downstairs during this break or at least walk around the office.

3. Have you checked social networks?

Addiction to Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram is an increasingly common phenomenon. Even while working or studying, we check the news several times an hour. This causes problems with concentration or the emergence of fears of "being out of date" (the so-called FOMO - Fear Of Missing Out ). Social networking sites also increase the likelihood of relationship problems - from increasing jealousy to a greater tendency to betrayal.

4. Did you eat at your desk?

It doesn't matter if it was fruit, nuts, chocolate, or chips - the effect is the same. We eat a lot more calories than we would do if we focus only on eating. We need a long time to feel full, so we eat more and more. When eating in front of the computer, we often choose snacks that replace our normal meals. This affects weight and health.

5. Have you lost your workplace?

Chaos on the desk has a bad effect on the organization of work - we waste time finding specific things, we get nervous and stressed more. It has also been proven that we make less rational decisions more often in such situations. Researchers from the University of Minnesota tested it on a group of people who were offered a snack during work - an apple or a chocolate bar. People working in cluttered places more often reached for sweets, while people who had ordered around them made more rational choices and decided on fruit.

6. Did you ignore the need to use the bathroom?

If we want to finish the e-mail, make one more phone call, add a few last sentences to the project, we ignore the needs of our body. It is okay to temporarily hold your urine for a few minutes. The problem arises if this happens regularly. This can cause bladder and urinary problems - infections, inflammation, and even urinary incontinence.

Most of us make similar mistakes every day - stress and chasing deadlines mean that we miss such small situations. It's time to realize, however, that repeating them every day is not indifferent to your physical and mental health.